Criminology is the scientific study of the nature, extent, management, causes, control, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior, both on individual and social levels. Criminology is an interdisciplinary field in both the behavioral and social sciences, which draws primarily upon the research of sociologists, psychologists, philosophers, psychiatrists, biologists, social anthropologists, as well as scholars of law.
Security studies, also known as international security studies, is traditionally held to be an academic sub-field of the wider discipline of international relations. The field rapidly developed within international relations during the Cold War, and examples from the era can be considered to include the academic works of mid-20th century Realist political scientists such as Thomas Schelling and Henry Kissinger, whose works focused primarily on nuclear deterrence. While the field is mostly contained within political science and public policy programs, it is increasingly common to take an interdisciplinary approach that incorporates knowledge from the fields of history, geography (stressing classical geopolitics), military sciences, and criminology.